Widespread mistakes about the existence of the Lazarus order
Because, unfortunately, on the Internet a big number of false statements exist - even in the Wikipedia - it is very urgently necessary to inform about the fact that Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus, were never dissolved briefly called Lazarus order, and exist incessantly. Here 11 mistakes which are spread in the big magnitude are performed.
Mistake 1. "The Order of Saint Lazarus was combined already in 1489 by a bull of pope Innozenz VIII with the Maltese Knight's order"
The bull "Nos Igitur" from the 28th of March, 1489 ordered the union of the grave order of knights, the Lazarians and more different with the Maltese Knights.
At that time really existed of the Lazarusorden in two branches absolutely separate of each other:
a) The Priorat of Capua. It was in a satellite state of the holy chair; his head was called in each case „master of the orden of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem here and beyond the lighthouse". To close after the springs, the "union" of the goods and members of the order who were subordinate to the Priorat Capua has occurred in the form of a key money in cash. No speech was actual from an annexation of the Lazarusordens (branch Capua) in the Maltese Knight's order. In addition, pope Leo X produces the order in the states of this ruler expressly again in his bull from the 12th of March, 1517 about desire of emperor Charles V.
Moreover, the prior of Capua was called later „general master of the ordet of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem in the kingdom Sicily and at all other places" what proves that in the area of the church state the union bull of 1489 had not even been carried out. Also pope Paul V on the 9th of February, 1565 in his bull "Inter Assiduas" granted different privileges to the order of Saint Lazarus (branch Capua).
b) That order branch to which the Magistralkommende Boigny was subordinate (to him belonged the European whole order, excluded the jurisdiction areas of the church state and the king of Spain) did not realise the union with the Maltese Knights also. Though the Maltese Knights tried till 1544 stubbornly to put through the papal bull, until, finally, the parliament resolved on Paris on the 16th of February, 1547 to prevent these attempts. The Lazarusorden chose for it his Großméister from the rows of the Maltese Knights. The pope recognised the non-realisation of his union decree also officially by the cardinal's legacies Trivulce. In 1603 arose from between the holy chair and the French king concluded Konkordat (Leo X and Franz I) the fact that the Grand Master of the order of Saint Lazarus who held the dignity of a prelate could be ordered by the king of France. From this state of affairs heratis claimed king Heinrich IV on the 7th of September, 1604 for himself, the Grand Master's dignity in the order of Saint Lazarus is to „sa disposition.
Conclusion: The result the bull of 1489 was the confirmation and strengthening of the fact of the continuance of both order of Saint Lazarus (Capua and Boigny) and the branch ordered Capua since 1517 of the order establishments in the church state as well as of that in the area of the Spanish crown. The branch Capua of the ordet of Saint Lazarus worked very strongly in the Central European space, also after his union with the order of Saint Mauritius. Boigny ruled over the worldwide rest.
Mistake 2. „The order was left open in 1572 by pope Gregor XIII who connected the ordet of Saint Lazarus to the order of Saint Mauritius and formed from it him, order of the Saint Mauritius and Lazarus`."
In 1565 Giannoto Castiglione had been appointed by pope Pius V to the Grand Master of the order of Saint Lazarus. In 1565 Giannoto Castiglione had been appointed by pope Pius V to the Grand Master of the order of Saint Lazarus (the branch Capua) which had continued to exist in the state areas Charles V.
On the 16th of September, 1572 pope Gregor XVI with his bull "Pro Commissa" founded the order of Saint Mauritius whose Grand Master became the duke of Savoy, Emanuel Philibert, and on the 13th of November of 1572 rose of the order of Saint Lazarus (branch Capua) in the new „order of the Saint Mauritius and Lazarus". The goods - probably except that which lay in the territory of the king of Spain - also closed to the new order.
The order of Saint Lazarus in France (branch Boigny of the order) under his Grand Master Michel de Seurre rejected the attempt of his absorbition by new Mauritius-and Lazarus-order energetically. The strange request of the duke of Savoy was rejected in the general chapter from the 9th of May, 1578 with support by king Heinrich III.
Now there were two orders absolutely different of each other under the name "Saint Lazarus":
a) the order of Saint Lazarus (branch Boigny) with Magistralsitz Boigny, under the protection of the kings of France, in the course of 16., 17th and 18th century still object more numerously of papal bulls and edicts of the kings of France became, and
b) the order of the Saint Mauritius and Lazarus (arisen from the branch Capua of the old order of Saint Lazarus) which continues his continuance among the Grand Masters from the house Savoy, the later kings of Italy, up to the today, and is naturally an object of the special interest of the order of Saint Lazarus and here again particularly that grand priorys which stand to him geographically, historically and dynastically most near.
Mistake 3. „Of the order of Saint Lazarus was dissolved by pope Clemens VIII in 1603 finally."
The bull from the 13th of November, 1572 who caused the union between Mauritius and Lazarus-order had excluded the order possession on the territories of the Spanish king expressly. Clemens VIII refers on the 10th of September, 1603 to these possessions and transfers them recently order of Saint Mauritius and Lazarus. This confirms only once more that the bull of 1572 had referred V. situated branches Capua of the order of Saint Lazarus exclusively on in 1517 in the areas of Charles V..
Mistake 4. „Of the order of Saint Lazarus was dissolved in July, 1608 by king Heinrich IV."
n July, 1608 Heinrich IV a draught was really presented in Fontainebleau to the resolution of the Lazarus order, was never signed, however, by the king.
"Commanderies, Prieurés, biens et possessions, appartenances et dépendances du dit Ordre de Saint-Lazare..." in a letter to Grand Master Philippe de Nérestang a similar letter is given from king Ludwig XIII to Grand Master Claude de Nérestang from the 26th of October, 1612.
Mistake 5. „The Lazarus order was founded only in 1608 in the form of the order Notre-lady you Mont-Carmel et Saint-Lazare de Jérusalem."
The Lazarus order had taken pleasure during the reign of king Heinrich IV (1589-1610) always of the special favour of the ruler. The king who founded on the 16th of February, 1607 the order of „Notre lady you MontCarmel" ordered on the 4th of April of the same year the Grand Master of the Lazarusordens, Philibert marquis de Nérestang also to the Grand Master of the new Karmelordens "comme vous l 'étes de celui de Saint-Lazare" - as well as Philibert just also a master of the Lazariter was. It concerned unambiguously around a common large-scale masterly dignity more than two orders absolutely independent of each other. The differentiation also steps in "lettres du Roi de France" from the 26th of October, 1612 and from the 29th of May, 1609 clearly.
The regulations of king Ludwig XVI of 21. Jänner in 1779 comes on this differentiation in all details. After The regulations of king Ludwig XVI of 21. Jänner in 1779 comes on this differentiation in all details. After closing the Ecole Royale Militaire in 1788 the order was not lent by Notre lady you Mont-Carmel also any more, while the count of the Provence, - the later king Ludwig XVIII - to the Lazarus order also in exile weiterverlieh (thus in czar Paul I of Russia or in king Gustav VI of Sweden).
Mistake 6. „The Lazarus order cannot be lent since 1788 any more."
Besides, one refers to an order from the 16th of April, 1824 which concerns, however, exclusively the order by Notre lady you Mont-Carmel as it arises from the text unambiguously. In 1797 the count of the Provence (the later king Ludwig XVI) refused to appoint new knight of Saint Karmel; by contrast he created after 1788 very well new knights of Saint Lazarus.
Mistake 7. „The Lazarus order was dissolved during the French revolution."
The revolution really made with all orders „table races" and dissolved all such unions by decree from the 30th of July, 1791. Only the decision of the revolutionary government had no legal orders because the National Assembly of 1791 did not have the right to lift an order which was no equipment of the French government. If the decision was valid of that time, there would also be no more nobility, no Knights of Malta, no royal house of France, no congregations, no religious orders...
In addition, existed the count of the Provence, the later king Ludwig XVIII (and brother of king Ludwig XVI), on his right and carried out in exile numerous appointments of knights of Saint Lazarus, thus also czar Paul I of Russia. The fact is especially noteworthy in this connection of course also that Paul I was also a Grand Master of the Knights of Malta. By his appointments in exile the later king Ludwig XVIII also stressed particularly the international character of the Lazarus order.
Mistake 8. „The Lazarus order has stopped to exist with the restoration of 1814."
The restoration of 1814 also produced all old facilities - from the monarchy up to the nobility - again. The almanac royal states up to 1830 of course also the Lazarus order. Indeed, the order any more did not come to the possession of his former immovables: the king needed the goods of the order for other purposes.
In 1824, with the death of king Ludwig XVIII., becomes king Charles X. Protektor of the order, and the almanac royal mentions him also as such. The Lazarus order is mentioned in 1830 - at the end of the rule of the Bourbons - for the last time in it.
Mistake 9. „The Lazarus order was dissolved by the charter of 1830."
The charter from the 9th of August, 1830 merely finds out that the honourary legion continues. From a resolution of the Lazarus order king Louis-Philippe mentions no word.
Mistake 10. „The Lazarusorden was dissolved by decree of king Louis-Philippe."
The only official order of the July monarchy was really "Légion d 'Honneur". But the king has dissolved neither the royal orders, nor those which stood under the historical protectorate of the kings of France. Expressly there were dissolved, however, all orders which had been founded „as a result of the events of 1814 and 1815" under which of the Lazarus order did not fall really.
Mistake 11. „The Lazarus order has not existed between the years 1830 and 1910.
This assertion is one of the most often proposed false alarms.
In 1830 the knigths of St. Lazarus enclosed a not unsubstantial number, but her actual protector - they had lost king Karl X. - and king Heinrich V., that would pale protector, was one more child.
In this time the knights of St. Lazarus again turned to her original protector, the patriarch of Jerusalem (more exactly: In this time the knights of St. Lazarus again turned to her original protector, the patriarch of Jerusalem (more exactly: griechischmelkitischen, so unierten patriarch of Antiochien and Jerusalem) which had received the full jurisdiction power about the members of his church at that time - just on time - from the Turkish sultan after intervention of the emperor of Austria.
In 1841, on the occasion of the visit of patriarch Maximo III. Mazloum in Paris, the order came again under the protectorate of the melkitic patriarchs. Among all patriarchs following on from him became - even if in small number - appointments of knigths of St. Lazarus carried out (some names are stated in the segment of the order history from 1830 to 1910). Moreover, they continued to exist paled coming from de la moth of the Murs and Saint-Frangoise de Bailleul in uninterrupted order what proves just the absolutely unbroken continuity of the Lazarus order - up to the today .
Spring: Extract from the work "Memento", author: † Erich Feigl, published by the chancellor's office of the great piorates of Austria of the Ordre Militaire et Hospitalier de Saint-Lazare de Jerusalem, Vienna, in 1978, pages 44 to 49
Last updated 13.08.2015
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